JMIR Publications

JMIR Challenges

Editorial Policies

Editorial Policies

Focus and Scope

Do you have a problem or question for the worlds' leading health innovators? Challenges is a new JMIR platform connecting "solution-seekers" (sponsors) (companies, or other researchers) with "solution-providers" (entrants) (innovators, researchers, developers in the ehealth space). JMIR has a network of over 60.000 potential problem-solvers and idea generators: eHealth researchers, leaders and innovators, including the top scientists in the fields of informatics, behavioral sciences, mental health, serious games, mHealth, ubiquitous computing, human factors, bioinformatics and biotechnology. 

Section Policies

Challenge/Contest Documents (Sponsors)

For sponsors (solution-seekers): Submit your challenge document which should contain the following sections: * Background and Introduction * The Challenge * The Award(s)/Prize(s) * Submission Deadline * Eligibility and Submission Requirements * Judges * Judging Criteria * Winner Selection/Notification * License and Legal Stuff
Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Challenge/Contest Entries (Entrants) Ref 0001

If you are a solution-provider responding to a challenge, submit your solution under this section. Make sure the reference number matches the Reference Number of the Challenge Document. Follow instructions in the Challenge Document on how to prepare your submission.
Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Peer Review Process

Submitted challenges by "sponsors" (solution-seekers) will be internally and externally reviewed. Published solutions by solution-providers will be reviewed by the judges of the sponsor, as outlined in the competition document.

Publication Frequency

This journal publishes articles "continuously," i.e. articles are published online as soon as they are available (peer-reviewed and copy-edited).

Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge and accelerates research.Copyright is retained by the authors and articles can be freely used and distributed by others. Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published by JMIR Publications, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information (authors, title, journal, volume/issue, articleID), a link to the original publication (URL), as well as this copyright and license information ("Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution cc-by 2.0") must be included.

About JMIR Publications


JMIR Publications is the leading ehealth publisher, advancing progress in the health, engineering and social sciences to ultimately help people to live happier and healthier lives using technology.

Mission Statement

JMIR Publications helps innovators in the health technology space to collaborate and to disseminate their innovations, ideas, and research results to the widest possible audience, in a timely manner, adding value to the quality of the work and adhering to the highest ethical and quality standards.

We achieve this by using the Internet and the latest available technologies as well as by producing conferences and social media, and other innovative knowledge translation products. We also innovate in the scholarly communication space itself, experimenting with new business models, new models of peer-review and dissemination, and new technologies.


JMIR Publications is a rapidly growing innovative academic publisher. It builds on the success of JMIR (Journal of Medical Internet Research), which started in 1998 as a pioneering, small independent open access project hosted at a university, which subsequently grew into the most influential journal in medical informatics (ranked #1 by Impact Factor by Thomson Reuters for five years, 2013 IF: 4.7) and health services research (ranked #4 by Thomson Reuters among 85 health science journals). Due to the growth in influence and submissions, and to make the operations more sustainable and professional, the journal was incorporated as company in 2011. Shortly after incorporation, several spin-off journals were launched. Currently, JMIR Publications Inc. publishes over 1000 articles annually in the following journals:

                                    1. JMIR (Journal of Medical Internet Research) (ISSN 1438-8871)

                                    1. JMIR Research Protocols (ISSN 1929-0748)

                                    1. i-JMR (interactive Journal of Medical Research) (ISSN 1929-073X)

                                    1. Medicine 2.0 (ISSN 1923-2195)

                                    1. JMIR mHealth & uHealth (mobile and ubiquitous health) (JMU, ISSN 2291-5222)

                                    1. JMIR Serious Games (JSG, ISSN 2291-9279)

                                    1. JMIR Medical Informatics (JMI, ISSN 2291-9694)

                                    1. JMIR Human Factors (JHF, ISSN 2292-9495)

                                    1. JMIR Mental Health (JMH, ISSN 2368-7959)

                                    1. JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies (JRAT, ISSN 2369-2529)

                                    1. JMIR Cancer (JC, ISSN 2369-1999) 

                                    1. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (JPHS, ISSN 2369-2960)

                                    1. iProceedings (iProc)

                                    1. JMIR Preprints

Several other new journals are in development and will be launched in 2015 (the publisher also accepts new proposals by individuals and societies):

                                    • JMIR Medical and Bioengineering

                                    • JMIR Bioinformatics

                                    • JMIR Healthcare Improvement

JMIR Publications also produces and organizes the annual Medicine 2.0(R) World Congress series (, is curator of the Medicine 2.0(R) Social Network (, and owns several other trademarks in the health field [e.g. Healthbook(R),] and altmetrics area [Twimpact Factor(TM), WebCite(R),].

                                                                  • Fast-track review and rapid publishing: guaranteed peer-review and editorial decisions within 3 weeks, guaranteed publication within 4 weeks after acceptance (peer-reviewers are paid to deliver rapid and high-quality peer review reports) 

                                                                  • Open Access: FREE access, NO subscription required to read articles, first open access journal in health informatics (since 1999)

                                                                  • Authors retain the copyright and can republish their work for example as book chapters or their personal homepage (as long as the original publication in JMIR is acknowledged)

                                                                  • Fully indexed in: Medline [Index Medicus], CINAHL, Information Science Abstracts, INSPEC (Institution of Electrical Engineers), Communication Abstracts, The Informed Librarian Online, and other databases and abstraction services 

                                                                  • High visibility: JMIR website is among the most visited health informatics sites on the web - higher traffic than AMIA, JAMIA, IMIA websites 

                                                                  • Social Media Presence: Facebook & Twitter. Top articles are being tweeted over 100 times over the first week after appearance.

                                                                  • International Editorial Board

                                                                  • Printed version

                                                                  • Multimedia appendices" such as video (example) or Powerpoint-attachments (example

                                                                  • Author-friendly services and

                                                                  • proofreading and copyediting services 

                                                                  • Institutional affiliate status for departments and universities (Centers for Excellence in eHealth and Internet Research) available (

                                                                  • Full web-based manuscript submission and tracking system: Authors can track their manuscript through the peer-review process online. 

                                                                  • No space/length restrictions: JMIR also publishes full research reports with dozens or hundreds of pages. These articles, including book-length reports, will also be Medline indexed (copyediting surcharges may apply) 

                                                                  • Special issues: JMIR is happy to publish special issues or theme issues around a certain topic, e.g. as accompanying/follow-up publication to a conference or workshop. Contact the editor for details.

Editorial Board Policy

Purpose: The Editorial Board is a group of outstanding individuals committed to helping JMIR to produce an excellent multidisciplinary scientific publication of the highest quality

Selection criteria for EB members: Editorial Board members are appointed by the publisher/editor-in-chief for a 3-year-term that is renewable. Editorial Board members should have reviewed for JMIR and should have published at least one article in JMIR. Editorial Board members should not sit on editorial boards of competing journals during their term, but exceptions are possible. Nominations for Editorial Board appointments come from a variety of sources including self-nominations, the current Editorial Board, journal authors, and readers. The editorial board should constitute an appropriate interdisciplinary mix from a wide range of disciplines, including health care researchers, researchers from the engineering sciences, social sciences, and even patient representatives. EB members should be productive and respected members of the scientific community. In addition, JMIR is actively looking for consumer presentation on its board. Being an editorial board member for JMIR means that actual work is required, so EB members should have appropriate time and motivation.

Main responsibilities • General advocacy for open access publishing in general and publishing high-quality work in JMIR specifically • Strategic and operational advice (unsolicited, as well as in editorial board meetings) • Guiding papers in their area of expertise through the peer-review process. Individuals interested in joining the Editorial Board should read the FAQ Article How to become an EB member.

Theme Issues and Guest Editors

JMIR reaches tens of thousands of readers interested in information and communication technologies in health, and is therefore the preeminent knowledge translation venue in this area. We are happy to support, produce and co-edit JMIR Theme Issues as major knowledge translation activities in important and emerging areas of ehealth, with leaders in the respective fields as guest editors. We are looking for guest editors who wish to compile a theme issue on a special topic (for example: electronic publishing, telemedicine, quality of health information, patient education, decision-support, Internet in psychiatry, theory in ehealth, mobile technologies, Web 2.0, ...). This may be particularly interesting for workshop and conference organizers putting together a grant-funded event (e.g. with invited experts) on an eHealth-related topic. JMIR is an excellent dissemination vehicle of ehealth-related workshop results. Theme issues may also be used as a knowledge dissemination vehicle for results from large collaborative grant-funded projects. Theme issues may contain for example state-of-the-art papers from selected/invited experts, research results from a large grant proposal (e.g. a series of connected studies), or simply articles submitted in response to a specific open call for papers. The task of the guest editor(s) is generally

* to solicit manuscripts from colleagues/experts concerning the selected topic,

* to select peer-reviewers for incoming manuscripts,

* to make decisions (together with the editorial board) on article revisions and acceptance,

* to write an editorial for the theme issue

* to secure funding to sponsor the APFs (Article Processing Fees) for published papers (usually in the $10-25k range, please budget $1590 per paper). If the guest editor has a network of colleagues who have indicated that they can carry the APF themselves, then author-funded theme issues are also possible.

Funding through grants or other sources is usually required and should be budgeted for in grant proposals. In the past, funding agencies such as NIH/NCI, CIHR, or private foundations have successfully been approached by the Guest Editor(s) to secure the funds. For example, CIHR has launched a new program called "End of Grant Knowledge Translation Supplement," worth $25k, which enables the funding of a theme issue (more information here). Peer-reviewers at granting agencies also expect a portion of the budget devoted to knowledge dissemination and knowledge translation, and JMIR theme issues can be proposed to facilitate dissemination of research results (due to the Open Access policy, results reach a broader audience beyond the research community). We urge principal investigators of any larger team grant proposals related to health and information/communication technology to budget for a theme issue (or at least a series of JMIR papers). Letters of support and quotes from JMIR are available on request (please contact the editor-in-chief). Another possible funding venue are workshop funding programs. Again, that granting agencies such as NIH or CIHR usually expect to see some sort of knowledge dissemination activities in workshop proposals, and have in the past funded the JMIR APFs.

The editor of JMIR is happy to support and actively help with any knowledge translation component in grant proposals incorporating some of the ideas listed above (as well as novel ideas e.g. mutlimedia, podcasting etc., cobranded with JMIR).

Instructions for Authors

Before submitting, please read our instructions for authors. To submit the paper, create a user account as author and submit the paper in the author section of your user homepage. A Word-template of an article compatible with journals from JMIR Publications can be downloaded from Note that the references can be in any format, as long as the in-text citations are sequentially numbered in the manuscript with square brackets and as long as the reference at the end has a PMID in the format PMID:123456. See Instructions for Authors for details. .

If you submit a new challenge/competition document as solution-seeker, sponsor of an award, challenge award, please follow our template for solution seekers.

If you submit a solution in response to a challenge/competition document, please review the competition document for specific requirements.

As a service for our authors we now offer the possibility to have a submission considered in partner journals, which means that the manuscript and peer-review reports may be transferred to a JMIR sister/partner journal, if the paper is not found suitable for publication in JMIR, but is publishable in another journal. These journals include e.g. i-JMR, JMIR Res Protoc, JMIR mHealth and uHealth, JMIR Medical Informatics, JMIR Human Factors, JMIR Mental Health, JMIR Public Health, JMIR Cancer, Medicine 2.0 and others. The submission fee for that partner journal (if any) will be waived, and transfer of the peer-review reports may mean that the paper does not have to be re-reviewed. Authors will receive a notification when the manuscript is rejected for J Med Internet Res and transferred, and at that time can decide if they want to pursue publication in a sister/partner journal. If authors do NOT wish an automatic transfer to an alternative journal after rejection for JMIR, this should be noted in the cover letter.

Trademarks Policy

Certain names, graphics, logos, icons, designs, words, titles or phrases on this Web site or in JMIR articles may constitute trade names, trademarks or service marks of JMIR or other entities. As customary in scholarly articles, trademarks and service marks are not necessarily indicated as such by using the trademark (TM), service mark (SM), or registered trademark (R) symbols. Omission of these symbols do not imply the absence of a trademark registration. The display of trademarks on pages at this Web site does not imply that a license of any kind has been granted. JMIR, Medicine 2.0, Healthbook, and WebCite are registered trademarks owned by JMIR Publications.

Fee Schedule

Please note that an optional fast track fee is available for all journals for $450 USD.

Journal Submission Fee Article Processing Fee ** Notes
Journal of Medical Internet Research $90 $2500 1 -
JMIR Research Protocols - $1900 or $950

Since Nov 2014, JMIR Research Protocols no longer charges a submission fee - papers can currently be submitted free of charge. In case of acceptance, an Article Processing Fee (APF) will be charged to cover peer-review, copyediting and typesetting costs:

  • $950: For protocols and grant proposals, if existing grant agency peer-review reports are provided (as Multimedia Appendix or supplementary file for reviewers/editors) which are of sufficient quality so that the manuscript does not have to be reviewed in detail externally (in submission step 1, choose a submission section which says "already funded")
  • $1900: For regular articles, non-peer-reviewed/approved protocols/proposals, early reports, formative research, methods etc
JMIR mHealth and uHealth - $2500 2 JMIR mHealth and uHealth does not charge any submission fee, but there is a US$1900 Article Processing Fee (APF) in case of acceptance, to cover the costs for professional copyediting, typesetting, and deposit in various databases (PubMed Central, PubMed etc.).
JMIR Medical Informatics - $1500 JMIR Med Inform currently charges no submission fee. For submissions after August 2014 there is an Article Processing fee of US$1500 in case of acceptance.
Interactive Journal of Medical Research - $1500 i-JMR no longer charges a submission fee (after Dec 6, 2015). In case of acceptance, an Article Processing Fee of $1500 will be charged to cover copyediting and typesetting costs.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance - $1750 3 -
JMIR Mental Health - $1750 4 There is no submission fee. For papers accepted after March 1st, 2015, JMIR Mental Health charges an Article Processing Fee of US $1500 in case of acceptance (papers submitted to JMH before March 1st 2015 are exempt).
Iproceedings - Free* There is currently no Submission fee or other costs involved for the abstract/extended abstract submission.
JMIR Human Factors - $1500 5 -
JMIR Serious Games - $1500 There is currently no Submission fee. There is an optional fast-track fee of US$450 if the author requires a decision within 3 weeks. Since 2015, as the journal is now PubMed-indexed, there is an Article Processing Fee of US$1500 payable only in case of acceptance, to cover copyediting and publishing costs.
JMIR Medical Education - $1500 6 -
JMIR Cancer - $1500 7 There is no Submission fee, but for submissions after Oct 15th, 2015, there is an Article Processing Fee of $1500.
JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies - $1500 8 There is no Submission fee, but for submissions after Oct 22nd, 2015, there is an Article Processing Fee of $1500.
Medicine 2.0 - $450 We currently charge no submission fee, but submission is only open to authors and works presented at the Medicine 2.0 congress ( There is no Article Processing Fee for papers submitted, starting 2013. If authors opt to have their manuscript copyedited by a professional copyeditor (this is the default and highly recommended!), a charge of $450 will be billed (up to 20 manuscript pages).
JMIR Diabetes - Free* There is currently no Submission or Article Processing fee for this journal.
JMIR Preprints - $50 There is currently no Submission or Article Processing fee for this journal. After peer-review, the author can decide whether he wants to publish the paper in a partner journal (provided that the editor offers publication), which may or may not have its own Article Processing Fees, or can "publish" it on JMIR Preprints, which involves assignment of a DOI, and requires a nominal fee of $50.
JMIR Challenges - Free* There is currently no Submission or Article Processing fee for this journal.
JMIR Biomedical Engineering - Free* There is currently no Submission or Article Processing fee for this journal.
JMIR Cardio - Free* There is currently no Submission fee. There is an optional fast-track fee of US$450 if the author requires a decision within 3 weeks. As an introductory offer, there is no APF for articles submitted before July 2017.
1For submissions in JMIR before Jul 29, 2015, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1900
2For submissions in JMU before Jun 01, 2015, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1500
For submissions in JMU between Jun 01, 2015 and Feb 05, 2017, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1900
3For submissions in JPH before Jun 01, 2015, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
For submissions in JPH between Jun 01, 2015 and Feb 06, 2017, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1500
4For submissions in JMH before Mar 01, 2015, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
For submissions in JMH between Mar 01, 2015 and Feb 05, 2017, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1500
5For submissions in JHF before Jun 01, 2015, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
6For submissions in JME before Sep 24, 2015, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
7For submissions in JC before Oct 15, 2015, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
8For submissions in JRAT before Oct 23, 2015, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)

*Introductory offer

**Article Processing Fees (APFs) are only charged in case of acceptance, at the time of acceptance. In case of price increases, the submission date determines the price of the APF

As we aim to publish widely indexed, carefully copyedited, high-quality manuscripts, that are also deposited in repositories such as PubMed Central, publication of an accepted paper requires expensive production steps such as copyediting, reference checking and XML tagging. In the editing & production stage, JMIR employs professional full-time staff and freelancers, and we have to pay our bills too. To defray these costs (and because we cannot sell subscriptions like toll-access journals) we require authors to pay certain fees. Authors publishing in JMIR are paying a nominal submission fee ($90), an article processing fee (APF) only in case of acceptance, and (optionally) a fast-track fee for expedited review. These fees are usually funded from research grants, and new researchers in the area are urged to budget for open access publications in their grant proposals, much as they budget for conference presentations (please budget about $2000 per article). When comparing the costs for publishing in JMIR against the cost of publishing in other OA journals, please consider that 1) JMIR is consistently ranked #1 in its field by impact factor, 2) JMIR employs professional copyediting after acceptance, which is a service many OA journals with lower costs do not provide. Given these considerations, JMIR is currently one of the most cost-effective OA journals on the market. For a detailed fee overview see Instructions for Authors.

JMIR Article Processing Fee Waiver Policy

Only the APF can be waived, and only in exceptional circumstances. Please contact the editor BEFORE submission to get an informal opinion on whether or not a particular paper/topic may get sufficient priority for an APF waiver. You will also need to fill in an application form, signed by ALL coauthors, and ALL of their department heads, confirming that no other funds are available. The application form with all signatures of all coauthors and their department chairs should preferably be made on submission (upload a scanned form as supplementary file). In exceptional cases we grant fee waivers, but we have to set the bar high for these exceptions, as any APF waiver means that we have to subsidize the publication, even though we are not a granting agency. Usually the onus is on the author to find funding sources from any entity that benefits from publication of the article. For example, due to the high impact-factor ranking of JMIR, usually your department benefits directly or indirectly from publication of the article, so in the absence of extramural funding we would expect the department to carry the costs. Article Processing Fees (APFs) for Open Access journals have become an increasingly accepted method to defray the costs for publication, and fortunately most institutions have developed mechanisms and funding sources to cover publication costs in high-quality open access journals. Most researchers pay APFs from their grants (if you have money to travel to conferences, you also have money to pay for an APF – both are knowledge dissemination activities!). If this is not the case, institutions and departments may have funds or bursaries for such purposes. Some institutions or departments may have purchased an institutional JMIR membership – the APF is automatically waived if the corresponding author is from an institutional member. JMIR is waiving APFs for non-members only under exceptional circumstances if all of the following conditions are met: 1) neither of the authors (including coauthors) have funding sources enabling them to carry the APF 2) or: in case of having a funding source (e.g. a project/research sponsor listed in the “Acknowledgements”), the funding source(s) declined to pay for open access publishing charges, 3) the departments/institutions of all authors have no funds, bursaries, or other means to pay for open access charges. In order to consider an application for a fee waiver, we require in writing from each coauthor a written declaration that they have explored all avenues of potential funding. We need these declarations from each co-author, each counter-signed by the head of the department or university mentioned in the authors’ affiliation lines. If an author lists multiple affiliations, we need to have the head/chair/director from each affiliation sign the form (APF Waiver Form). If a funding source (e.g. granting agency, foundation etc.) is named as a project sponsor in the acknowledgement section of an article, we require a written statement signed by a representative of that sponsor explicitly declining payment of the APF and explaining why (we are not aware of any major funders not covering APFs, so we need assurance that the funder has been approached by the authors). We reserve the right to publish a blacklist and our experiences with certain institutions or funders who have no open access-friendly policies, ultimately to put public pressure on these organizations. Requests for APF waivers are usually not granted if any coauthor is from a institution which is a signatory of the “Compact for Open Access Equity” (OACOMPACT) (, as in these cases there is documented and guaranteed institutional financial help available to cover publication fees. In this case it is the responsibility of the author to contact the respective university body (OACOMPACT contacts) to request financial support for the APF. This includes for example authors from the following institutions (check for an updated list and details - do NOT contact us to inquire about details): • Cornell University • Dartmouth College • Harvard University • Massachusetts Institute of Technology • University of California at Berkeley • University of Ottawa • Columbia University • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center If any author has any of these organizations listed in their affiliation lines, and payment of the APF has been turned down by the OACOMPACT contact, we will require a letter from the OACOMPACT contacts addressed to the author detailing why an author-application for financial help has been rejected. APF waivers are usually not granted if one author is affiliated with a commercial for-profit organization, or a commercial organization being acknowledged as sponsor of the project. We will make a case-by-case decision if the CEO or another management-level officer of the company provides us with a compelling reason why payment of APF is not possible. If an article has been approved for a fee waiver, the following statement will be added to the “acknowledgements” of the publication: “Publication of this article was co-sponsored by the Journal of Medical Internet Research. All authors declared that they failed to identify any funding source for the project described in the paper to enable coverage of the publication costs. All department/division heads/chairs of the author institutions have declared that no institutional funding mechanisms for knowledge dissemination activities and/or coverage of open access publishing costs at their department or university level exist.” Note that we will treat any cases of forged signatures or false declarations as scientific misconduct.

Our fees are comparable to or lower than the fees of other Open Access publishers.

Subscriptions (Membership)

Readers are invited to join the FREE electronic content alert service by registering here. Registered readers also receive access to a free PDF sample issue. JMIR is an open access journal - articles are available free of charge as HTML files. Frequent readers and researchers working in the ehealth field are encouraged to become a paying/supporting individual or institutional member, which provides additional benefits such as downloading articles or entire issues as PDF files, or (for some institutional memberships) Article Processing Fee waivers or discounts, to encourage faculty and students to publish in JMIR. With becoming a member you support the overarching mission of the journal, which is to improve health through prudent use of information and communication technology.

Publication Ethics and Malpractice

Conflict of Interests section is mandatory for all manuscripts. Conflict of interest exists when an author (or the author's institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence (bias) his or her actions (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). These relationships vary from those with negligible potential to those with great potential to influence judgment, and not all relationships represent true conflict of interest. The potential for conflict of interest can exist whether or not an individual believes that the relationship affects his or her scientific judgment. Financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony) are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and the most likely to undermine the credibility of the journal, the authors, and of science itself. However, conflicts can occur for other reasons, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion. In JMIR Med Inform, conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) employment at and/or ownership of stocks or stock options in companies whose products/apps/software were evaluated. If no conflicts exist, please write "Conflict of Interests - None declared" (place after "Acknowledgements", before the References section).

When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate IRB (Institutional Reserch Board, also known as REB) approval/exemption and whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should be asked to indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. 

Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published.

Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.

When informed consent has been obtained it should be indicated in the published article.

Authors should identify individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance.

JMIR Publications is a member of COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics). The entire publication process from submission, review, to publication, adheres to the COPE guidelines, and suspected cases of misconduct will be investigated using COPE Flowcharts.